Urinary tract infection (UTI)


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) such as cystitis are very common. They’re not usually serious, but they can cause more problems for some people. Our experts can help with the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs.

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Lumps or swelling in the testicles are not usually an indication of anything serious. However, it could be a sign of testicular cancer. This is easy to treat if caught early.

You should always see your consultant if you find:

- a lump in your testicles
- a change in the shape, feel or size of your testicles
- an ache in your testicles that doesn't go away

Need to know

You can get a urinary tract infection (UTI) if bacteria enter your urinary tract. Usually, this is by bacteria spreading from your anus to your urethra (the tube that carries urine out of your body). You can also get bacteria into your urinary tract through a catheter, through having surgery, or less frequently, via your bloodstream.
Cranberry juice and other cranberry products are widely used for treating and preventing UTIs.14 But the benefits are uncertain – there is only very low-quality evidence that they can help. Because of this, they aren’t generally recommended for UTIs. But if you get recurrent UTIs, it’s something you may wish to try.
Yes, anyone can get a UTI. They are much more common in women.3 But men can get them too. Men are at increased risk if they have a catheter, or have had surgery or procedures involving the bladder or urinary tract. Having an enlarged prostate gland can also increase risk of a UTI in men, as it means you can’t fully empty your bladder.
Yes, cystitis is a type of UTI that causes infection in your bladder. It means bacteria have spread up from your urethra (the tube that carries urine out of your body), into your bladder. If the bacteria travel further up into your urinary system, it can infect your kidneys.
You can get cystitis if bacteria spread from your anus to your urethra (the tube that carries urine out of your body), and into your bladder. It’s common in women as it’s easy for bacteria to spread between these areas. Certain things can make cystitis more likely. These include sexual intercourse, using spermicides and taking antibiotics.

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This content is intended for general information only and does not replace the need for personal advice from a qualified health professional.