Pericardial effusion and tamponade

A build up of fluid around your heart, which can affect your heart function

An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.

About pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the double-layered, sack-like structure around your heart. The space between the layers normally contains a very thin layer of fluid. If the pericardium is inflamed or has experienced trauma it can lead to excess fluid. Tamponade is when this fluid build-up affects your normal heart function to such an extent that the fluid needs draining.

Need to know

  • What are the symptoms of pericardial effusion? icon plus

    It is possible to have pericardial effusion or tamponade and not have any symptoms. If you do have symptoms they may include:

    • difficulty or laboured breathing (dyspnea)
    • shortness of breath when lying down (orthopnea)
    • chest pain, usually on the left side of your chest or behind your breastbone (sternum)
    • chest tightness or fullness sensation

    A large effusion or tamponade can compress the heart and this will require immediate medical attention.

  • Diagnosing pericardial effusion icon plus

    A pericardial effusion will usually be diagnosed by an echocardiogram which uses sound waves to create images of your heart in real time.

    Other tests may include a chest X-ray, CT or MRI scan and blood tests.

  • Potential treatment options icon plus

    Your treatment will depend on the amount of fluid that has accumulated in your heart.

    Options may include:

    • Medications to reduce the inflammation such as aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    • Pericardiocentesis. This is a procedure where the fluid is drained from your heart using the insertion of a needle and a small tube (catheter) to drain the fluid to relieve the pressure.
    • Surgery. This is reserved for the most severe of cases where your consultant determines that it is necessary to drain the liquid and repair any damage.

Our cardiac consultants

Our cardiologists and cardiac surgeons are experienced in managing pericardial effusion and will guide you through tests and diagnostic procedures that may need to be undertaken. 

Our locations

From complex cardiac surgery to diagnostic tests and procedures, we provide exceptional cardiac care across our network of hospitals, outpatient centres and specialist clinics.

Book an appointment

Our team can help with any enquiries or you can make an appointment with one of our experienced consultants.

Call us today

020 7079 4344
This content is intended for general information only and does not replace the need for personal advice from a qualified health professional.
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